Gabapentin is used to treat Restless Legs Syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder of the part of thenervous system that causes an urge to move the legs. Because it usually interferes with sleep, it also is considered a sleep disorder.

Causes of Restless Legs Syndrome

In most cases, doctors do not know the cause of restless legs syndrome; however, they suspect that genes play a role. Nearly half of people with RLS also have a family member with the condition.

Other factors associated with the development or worsening of restless legs syndrome include:

  • Chronic diseases. Certain chronic diseases and medical conditions, including iron deficiency, Parkinson’s disease, kidney failure,diabetes, and peripheral neuropathy often include symptoms of RLS. Treating these conditions often gives some relief from RLS symptoms.
  • Medications. Some types of medications, including antinausea drugs, antipsychotic drugs, some antidepressants, and cold and allergymedications containing sedating antihistamines, may worsen symptoms.
  • Pregnancy. Some women experience RLS during pregnancy, especially in the last trimester. Symptoms usually go away within a month after delivery.

Other factors, including alcohol use and sleep deprivation, may trigger symptoms or make them worse. Improving sleep or eliminating alcohol use in these cases may relieve symptoms.

Treatment for Restless Legs Syndrome

Treatment for RLS is targeted at easing symptoms. In people with mild to moderate restless legs syndrome, lifestyle changes, such as beginning a regular exercise program, establishing regular sleep patterns, and eliminating or decreasing the use of caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco, may be helpful. Treatment of an RLS-associated condition also may provide relief of symptoms.

Other non-drug RLS treatments may include:

Leg massages
Hot baths or heating pads or ice packs applied to the legs
Good sleep habits
A vibrating pad called Relaxis
Medications may be helpful as RLS treatments, but the same drugs are not helpful for everyone. In fact, a drug that relieves symptoms in one person may worsen them in another. In other cases, a drug that works for a while may lose its effectiveness over time.

Drugs used to treat RLS include:

  • Dopaminergic drugs, which act on the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain.
  • Mirapex, Neupro, and Requip are FDA-approved for treatment of moderate to severe RLS. Others, such as levodopa, may also be prescribed.
  • Benzodiazepines, a class of sedative medications, may be used to help with sleep, but they can cause daytime drowsiness.
  • Narcotic pain relievers may be used for severe pain.
  • Anticonvulsants, or antiseizure drugs, such as Tegretol, Lyrica, Gabapentin ( Neurontin ), and Horizant.

Although there is no cure for restless legs syndrome, current treatments can help control the condition, decrease symptoms, and improve sleep.

Usual Adult Dose for Restless Legs Syndrome

Gabapentin enacarbil available under the trade name Horizant (R):
600 mg orally once daily with food at about 5 PM

Gabapentin is used to treat Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

What is Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A common complication of diabetes mellitus in which nerves are damaged as a result of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels)

Gabapentin for Diabet Neuropathy Pain
Gabapentin for Diabet Neuropathy Pain

Not many people are aware of the medical condition that is known as Diabetic Neuropathy however more and more people are being diagnosed with having it, and if you have been recently diagnosed with Diabetic Neuropathy then you will need to start to take drug to help manage and control that condition.

Causes of Neuropathic Pain

Exposure to drugs, alcohol, toxins Neuropathic Pain Surgical procedures/ Amputation Traumatic Nerve injury/ compression Metabolic disturbance Viral infection Neuropathic pain is a disease, like myocardial infarction is a disease. Myocardial infarction may be caused by smoking, or hypertension, or diabetes. Multiple different things contribute to the cause of myocardial infarction, but myocardial infarction is the disease. Similarly, neuropathic pain is a disease, and this slide shows many of the different conditions that can result in neuropathic pain.

But the pain is nonprotective. It is something that persists and behaves separately as a disease itself. Cancer related (disease or treatment Vascular related neurodegenerative Nutritional deficiency

The best drug you can take is the fast acting Gabapentin and one of the main reasons why many people who do have Diabetic Neuropathy will take that drug is that it is not only fast acting as mentioned but it is also a very low cost drug to purchase too.

Drugs associated with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

If you do want to take Gabapentin to treat diabetic neuropathy then please do be aware there can be some side effects, and before you make a purchase of Gabapentin you will be best advised to find out what the side effect of Gabapentin when taking it to treat diabetic neuropathy, and if at any time you start to experience any of those side effects then please seek the advice of a Doctor or a medical professional.

Pharmacologic Treatment for Neuropathic pain

Lidocaine patch 5%, capsaicinOpioidsOxycodone, Tramadol, Fentanyl, Morphine, HydrocodoneAntidepressantsTricyclic AntidepressantsAmitryptiline, Nortryptiline, Desipramine, Imipramine, DoxepinSelective Noredrinaline reuptake inhibitorsDuloxetine, VenlafaxineAnticonvulsantsCarbamazepine, Valproate, Lamotrigine, Topiramate, Gabapentin, Pregabalin

 

 

 

Take Gabapentin as an Anticonvulsant

Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Anticonvulsants suppress the rapid and excessive firing of neurons during seizures. Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain. Some investigators have observed that anticonvulsants themselves may cause reduced IQ in children.   However these adverse effects must be balanced against the significant risk epileptic seizures pose to children and the distinct possibility of death and devastating neurological sequelaesecondary to seizures.

Anticonvulsants are more accurately called antiepileptic drugs (abbreviated “AEDs”), and are often referred to as antiseizure drugs because they provide symptomatic treatment only and have not been demonstrated to alter the course of epilepsy.

Gabapentin (Neurontin) has been approved as adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization . Begin with 300 mg daily; increase to 900 to 1,800 mg daily given every 6 to 8 hours.  Side Effects maybe: Somnolence, fatigue, ataxia, dizziness, gastrointestinal upset, dyspnea.

A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog, gabapentin does not interact with GABA receptors. Its mechanism of action is unknown.

Gabapentin is well absorbed orally, circulates mostly unbound in the plasma and is excreted unchanged in the kidneys without appreciable metabolism in the body. Oral bioavailability is approximately 60 percent and is not affected by food. The half-life is five to seven hours and is related to the creatinine clearance. Therefore, excretion is decreased in patients with renal impairment and decreased cardiac function, and in elderly patients. Gabapentin can be removed from the system through hemodialysis.

In clinical studies,  gabapentin was found to be effective in adults with refractory partial seizures and was also effective in preventing the progression of partial seizures to generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

Because gabapentin has no known pharmacokinetic interactions with any other antiepileptic drugs, it is useful in patients taking other antiepileptic medication.

 

Gabapentin Dosage Forms

Neurontin (gabapentin) capsules and tablets are supplied as follows:

100-mg capsules:

Hard gelatin CONI-SNAP® capsules with white opaque body and cap printed with “PD” on one side and “Neurontin /100 mg” on the other. -bottles of 100 capsules

300-mg capsules:

Hard gelatin CONI-SNAP® capsules with yellow opaque body and cap printed with “PD” on one side and “Neurontin /300 mg” on the other. -bottles of 100 capsules

400-mg capsules:

Hard gelatin CONI-SNAP® capsules with orange opaque body and cap printed with “PD” on one side and “Neurontin /400 mg” on the other. -bottles of 100 capsules

600 mg tablets:

White, elliptical, biconvex, film-coated tablet with bisecting score on both sides and debossed with “NT” and “16” on one side. -bottles of 100 tablets

800 mg tablets:

White, elliptical biconvex, film-coated tablet with bisecting score on both sides and debossed “NT” and “26” on one side. -bottles of 100 tablets

Capsules contain : gabapentin, lactose, corn starch, and talc, Capsule shells may contain : gelatin, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, yellow iron oxide, red iron oxide, and FD&C Blue No. 2.

Tablets contain : gabapentin, poloxamer 407 NF, copolyvidone, corn starch, magnesium stearate, hydroxypropylcellulose, talc and candelilla wax.

How should I take gabapentin?

Read the Gabapentin Medication Guide and, if available, the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you start taking gabapentin and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor. Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. For children, the dosage is also based on weight.

If you are taking the tablets and your doctor directs you to split the tablet in half, take the other half-tablet at your next scheduled dose. Discard half tablets if not used within several days of splitting them. If you are taking the capsules, swallow them whole with plenty of water.

It is very important to follow your doctor’s dosing instructions exactly. During the first few days of treatment, your doctor may gradually increase your dose so your body can adjust to the medication. To minimize side effects, take the very first dose atbedtime.

Take this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. This drug works best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, take gabapentin at evenly spaced intervals at the same time(s) each day. If you are taking this medication 3 times a day to control seizures, do not let more than 12 hours pass between doses because your seizures may increase.

Do not take this medication more often or increase your dose without consulting your doctor. Your condition will not improve any faster and the risk of serious side effects may increase.

Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Some conditions may become worse when the drug is suddenly stopped. Your dose may need to be gradually decreased.

Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium may interfere with the absorption of this medication. Therefore, if you are also taking an antacid, it is best to take gabapentin at least 2 hours after taking the antacid.

Different forms of gabapentin (such as immediate-release, sustained-release, enacarbil sustained-release) are absorbed in the body differently. Do not switch from one form to the other without consulting your doctor.

Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it worsens.

The Horizant brand of gabapentin should not be taken during the day. For best results, take Horizant with food at about 5:00 in the evening.

Both Gralise and Horizant should be taken with food.

Neurontin can be taken with or without food.

If you break a Neurontin tablet and take only half of it, take the other half at your next dose. Any tablet that has been broken should be used as soon as possible or within a few days.

Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

If your doctor changes your brand, strength, or type of gabapentin, your dosage needs may change.Ask your pharmacist if you have any questions about the new kind of gabapentin you receive at the pharmacy.

Do not stop using gabapentin suddenly, even if you feel fine. Stopping suddenly may cause increased seizures. Follow your doctor’s instructions about tapering your dose.

Wear a medical alert tag or carry an ID card stating that you take gabapentin. Any medical care provider who treats you should know that you take seizure medication.

Gabapentin can cause you to have a false positive urine protein screening test. If you provide a urine sample for testing, tell the laboratory staff that you are taking gabapentin.

Store tablets and capsules at room temperature away from light and moisture.

Store the liquid medicine in the refrigerator. Do not freeze.

Gabapentin is used to treat Restless Legs Syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder of the part of the nervous system that causes an urge to move the legs. Because it usually interferes with sleep, it also is considered a sleep disorder.

Causes of Restless Legs Syndrome

In most cases, doctors do not know the cause of restless legs syndrome; however, they suspect that genes play a role. Nearly half of people with RLS also have a family member with the condition.

Other factors associated with the development or worsening of restless legs syndrome include:

  • Chronic diseases. Certain chronic diseases and medical conditions, including iron deficiency, Parkinson’s disease, kidney failure,diabetes, and peripheral neuropathy often include symptoms of RLS. Treating these conditions often gives some relief from RLS symptoms.
  • Medications. Some types of medications, including antinausea drugs, antipsychotic drugs, some antidepressants, and cold and allergymedications containing sedating antihistamines, may worsen symptoms.
  • Pregnancy. Some women experience RLS during pregnancy, especially in the last trimester. Symptoms usually go away within a month after delivery.

Other factors, including alcohol use and sleep deprivation, may trigger symptoms or make them worse. Improving sleep or eliminating alcohol use in these cases may relieve symptoms.

Treatment for Restless Legs Syndrome

Treatment for RLS is targeted at easing symptoms. In people with mild to moderate restless legs syndrome, lifestyle changes, such as beginning a regular exercise program, establishing regular sleep patterns, and eliminating or decreasing the use of caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco, may be helpful. Treatment of an RLS-associated condition also may provide relief of symptoms.

Other non-drug RLS treatments may include:

Leg massages
Hot baths or heating pads or ice packs applied to the legs
Good sleep habits
A vibrating pad called Relaxis
Medications may be helpful as RLS treatments, but the same drugs are not helpful for everyone. In fact, a drug that relieves symptoms in one person may worsen them in another. In other cases, a drug that works for a while may lose its effectiveness over time.

Drugs used to treat RLS include:

  • Dopaminergic drugs, which act on the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain.
  • Mirapex, Neupro, and Requip are FDA-approved for treatment of moderate to severe RLS. Others, such as levodopa, may also be prescribed.
  • Benzodiazepines, a class of sedative medications, may be used to help with sleep, but they can cause daytime drowsiness.
  • Narcotic pain relievers may be used for severe pain.
  • Anticonvulsants, or antiseizure drugs, such as Tegretol, Lyrica, Gabapentin ( Neurontin ), and Horizant.

Although there is no cure for restless legs syndrome, current treatments can help control the condition, decrease symptoms, and improve sleep.

Usual Adult Dose for Restless Legs Syndrome

Gabapentin enacarbil available under the trade name Horizant (R):
600 mg orally once daily with food at about 5 PM

Gabapentin is Used to Treat Seizures and Postherpetic neuralgia ?

What is gabapentin?

Gabapentin is a prescription drug. It comes as an oral capsule, an immediate-release oral tablet, an extended-release oral tablet, and an oral solution.

Gabapentin oral capsule is available as the brand-name drug Neurontin. It’s also available as a generic drug. Generic drugs usually cost less than the brand-name version. In some cases, the brand-name drug and the generic version may be available in different forms and strengths.

Why it’s used

Gabapentin oral capsule is used to treat the following conditions:

  • Seizures: Gabapentin is used to treat partial (focal) seizures. It’s taken together with other seizure medications in adults and in children 3 years of age and older who have epilepsy.
  • Postherpetic neuralgia: This is pain from nerve damage caused by shingles, a painful rash that affects adults. Shingles appears after infection with the varicella zoster virus. This virus occurs in people who have had chicken pox.

Nerve pain can be a symptom of many different conditions, including cancer, HIV, diabetes, and shingles. For some, nerve pain is frustrating; for others, nerve pain is devastating and life-changing.

Whether it feels like burning, pinpricks, or sudden shocks of electricity, nerve pain can disrupt your life at home and at work. It can limit your ability to get around. Over time, it can grind you down. Studies show that people with nerve pain have higher rates of sleep problems,anxiety, and depression.Your nervous system is involved in everything your body does, from regulating your breathing to controlling your muscles and sensing heat and cold.

There are three types of nerves in the body:

  1. Autonomic nerves. These nerves control the involuntary or partially voluntary activities of your body, including heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and temperature regulation.
  2. Motor nerves. These nerves control your movements and actions by passing information from your brain and spinal cord to your muscles.
  3. Sensory nerves. These nerves relay information from your skin and muscles back to your spinal cord and brain. The information is then processed to let you feel pain and other sensations.

Because nerves are essential to all you do, nerve pain and damage can seriously affect your quality of life.

When you have a serious medical condition such as cancer or HIV, dealing with the additional misery of nerve pain can be especially hard. But there is good news. While nerve pain can’t always be cured, it can be treated — and there are a lot of good options available.

Experts believe that 40 million Americans are living with nerve pain. The impact of nerve pain is tremendous. Both the costs to the healthcare system as well as loss of wages and productivity are staggering.

How Are Nerve Pain and Nerve Damage Treated?

In many instances, nerve damage cannot be cured entirely. But there are various treatments that can reduce your symptoms. Because nerve damage is often progressive, it is important to consult with a doctor when you first notice symptoms. That way you can reduce the likelihood of permanent damage.

Often, the first goal of treatment is to address the underlying condition that’s causing your nerve pain or nerve damage. This may mean:

  • Regulating blood sugar levels for people with diabetes
  • Correcting nutritional deficiencies
  • Changing medications when drugs are causing nerve damage
  • Physical therapy or surgery to address compression or trauma to nerves
  • Medications to treat autoimmune conditions

Additionally, your doctor may prescribe medications aimed at minimizing the nerve pain you are feeling. These may include:

  • Pain relievers
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Certain anti-seizure drugs – Gabapentin

Complementary and alternative approaches may also help alleviate your nerve pain and discomfort. These include:

  • Acupuncture
  • Biofeedback
  • Hypnosis
  • Meditation

Dosage for postherpetic neuralgia

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

  • Typical starting dosage: Day 1, 300 mg; day 2, 600 mg (300 mg two times per day, spaced evenly throughout the day); day 3, 900 mg (300 mg, three times per day, spaced evenly throughout the day). Your doctor may further increase your dosage after day 3.
  • Maximum dosage: 1,800 mg per day (600 mg, three times per day, spaced evenly throughout the day)

Child dosage (ages 0–17 years)

Dosage for people younger than 18 years has not been established.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Your kidney function may decrease with age. Your body may get rid of this drug more slowly. Your doctor may start you on a lower dose so that too much of this drug does not build up in your body. Too much of the drug in your body can be dangerous. Your doctor may change your dose based on how well your kidneys are working.

Treatment effects of gabapentin for primary insomnia

Treatment effects of gabapentin for primary insomnia

OBJECTIVES:

The prevalence of insomnia is very high in our society. Although pharmacological treatment of insomnia is available, most hypnotics have been shown to alter sleep architecture and have many adverse effects. Gabapentin was originally designed for antiepileptic therapy; however, some studies reported that its use increases slow-wave sleep in healthy volunteers or patients. Our goal was to evaluate the benefits of gabapentin in the treatment of primary insomnia in patients.

METHODS:

Eighteen patients with primary insomnia participated in the study. They received gabapentin treatment for at least 4 weeks. All patients received polysomnography, a biochemical blood test, and neuropsychological tests before and after the treatment period. All measures were analyzed with Student t test to examine the treatment effects of gabapentin, except that the measures of heart rate variability were analyzed with analysis of variance.

Results:

Polysomnographic study revealed increased sleep efficiency and slow-wave sleep, decreased wake after sleep onset, and spontaneous arousal index after gabapentin treatment. The biochemical blood test revealed decreased prolactin levels in the morning after treatment.

What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking Gabapentin?

Before taking NEURONTIN, tell your healthcare provider if you:

  • have or have had kidney problems or are on hemodialysis
  • have or have had depression, mood problems, or suicidal thoughts or behavior
  • have diabetes
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if NEURONTIN can harm your unborn baby. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you become pregnant while taking NEURONTIN. You and your healthcare provider will decide if you should take NEURONTIN while you are pregnant.

  • If you become pregnant while taking NEURONTIN, talk to your healthcare provider about registering with the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry. The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. You can enroll in this registry by calling 1-888-233-2334.
  • are breast-feeding or plan to breast-feed. NEURONTIN can pass into breast milk. You and your healthcare provider should decide how you will feed your baby while you take NEURONTIN.

Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

Taking NEURONTIN with certain other medicines can cause side effects or affect how well they work. Do not start or stop other medicines without talking to your healthcare provider.

Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them and show it to your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.

Gabapentin may interact with other medications

Gabapentin oral capsule can interact with several other medications. Different interactions can cause different effects. For instance, some can interfere with how well a drug works, while others can cause increased side effects.

Below is a list of medications that can interact with gabapentin. This list does not contain all drugs that may interact with gabapentin.

Before taking gabapentin, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all prescription, over-the-counter, and other drugs you take. Also tell them about any vitamins, herbs, and supplements you use. Sharing this information can help you avoid potential interactions.

If you have questions about drug interactions that may affect you, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Pain drugs

When used with gabapentin, certain pain drugs can increase its side effects, such as tiredness. Examples of these drugs include:

    • morphine

Stomach acid drugs

When used with gabapentin, certain drugs used to treat stomach acid problems can reduce the amount of gabapentin in your body. This can make it less effective. Taking gabapentin 2 hours after taking these drugs can help prevent this problem. Examples of these drugs include:

    • aluminum hydroxide
    • magnesium hydroxide

What other drugs will affect gabapentin (Neurontin)?

Do not take NEURONTIN if you are allergic to gabapentin or any of the other ingredients in NEURONTIN. See the end of this Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in NEURONTIN.

Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:

  • hydrocodone (Lortab, Vicodin, Vicoprofen, and others);
  • morphine (Kadian, MS Contin, Oramorph, and others); or
  • naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve, Anaprox, and others).

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with gabapentin. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Medications known to interact with gabapentin

A

  • acetaminophen / propoxyphene
  • aspirin / caffeine / propoxyphene
B
  • Balacet (acetaminophen / propoxyphene)
  • Belbuca (buprenorphine)
  • Bunavail (buprenorphine / naloxone)
  • Buprenex (buprenorphine)
  • buprenorphine
  • buprenorphine / naloxone
  • Butrans (buprenorphine)
D
  • Darvocet A500 (acetaminophen / propoxyphene)
  • Darvocet-N 100 (acetaminophen / propoxyphene)
  • Darvocet-N 50 (acetaminophen / propoxyphene)
  • Darvon (propoxyphene)
  • Darvon Compound 32 (aspirin / caffeine / propoxyphene)
  • Darvon Compound-65 (aspirin / caffeine / propoxyphene)
  • Darvon-N (propoxyphene)
L
  • levomethadyl acetate
O
  • Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)
P
  • PC-CAP (aspirin / caffeine / propoxyphene)
  • PP-Cap (propoxyphene)
  • Propacet 100 (acetaminophen / propoxyphene)
  • propoxyphene
  • Propoxyphene Compound 65 (aspirin / caffeine / propoxyphene)
S
  • sodium oxybate
  • Suboxone (buprenorphine / naloxone)
  • Subutex (buprenorphine)
T
  • Trycet (acetaminophen / propoxyphene)
W
  • Wygesic (acetaminophen / propoxyphene)
X
  • Xyrem (sodium oxybate)
Z
  • Zubsolv (buprenorphine / naloxone)